i Sn —— Ia =


1 Ga ie) Ae

; na) Bay} a PAN SWAt 4 he vit eral vee 1 y eA Pees Wf : rune are nl if Pay Ne i ny ite

tial if ih 0 Pee Wied

a a aa u OTe Aili Mie Ue «Uta td eh ee a SAD } i ae ve eee rh eat Wo Dom, 0) Py “a! Phy vo i } Na a ‘beat U ay Sa i ts ine , Agi De 7 ‘| \ oy 4 yn i

y, a) Pare hig

j + J 7 : ; 7 Vt ( ' iy i } ‘i v ROP . a . : ey : Bows Ct i * af Lt iV a u A , Ti , B\ lp , i 4 a IL sty) ie J i +f . i} ; 4 \, Wigs €O) ic i La year ey ' : pal ; At ' wn \ } ar) i Dl ; i Uh : \ 4P Pte ht { eee i oY, copa) i CANE +08 Vi rae Abe ou fe Ue - iG) 7 7 ue ah + a rie. Fae nN entry | 8. Peas . ‘a ) nk : Sra : a everest a CRUE, | a pees A { ; : hy Ao Ay! ie Tite a a C rh Wet i iy 0 v , ¥ | 4 + - 1 j \ ro 4 A ; f

4 ed : Ti 2 a he ] ee We f Uf 4 | | ae Mee! de ' p : we i, . I ' runt 7 At) . i

my , re | me / : | Be bt. iy a fh ; , , at it ' : i : Pai) +) 1 | \ f ys Mik Tid +P - I i : i ny a : ? . * a ‘so :

7 ail 7s ; < . be ee j i) « Be i y wae i I 7 hon kay Os ts Ty } | Ae - a | : A | ¢ : ny 4 ie \





JOSEPH AUGUSTINE CUSHMAN Of the Boston Society of Natural History



The scientific publications of the United States National Museum consist of two series, the Proceedings and the Bulletins.

The Proceedings, the first volume of which was issued in 1878, are intended primarily as a medium for the publication of original, and usually brief, papers based on the collections of the National Musuem, presenting newly acquired facts in zoology, geology, and anthro- pology, including descriptions of new forms of animals, and revisions of limited groups. One or two volumes are issued annually and dis- tributed to libraries and scientific organizations. A limited number of copies of each paper, in pamphlet form, is distributed to specialists and others interested in the different subjects, as soon as printed, The date of publication is recorded in the table of contents of the volumes.

The Bulletins, the first of which was issued in 1875, consist of a series of separate publications comprising chiefly monographs of large zoological groups and other general systematic treatises (occa- sionally in several volumes), faunal works, reports of expeditions, and catalogues of type-specimens, special collections, etc. The majority of the volumes are octavos, but a quarto size has been adopted in a few instances in which large plates were regarded as indispensable.

Since 1902 a series of octavo volumes containing papers relating to the botanical collections of the Museum, and known as the Contribu- tions from the National Herbarvum, has been published as bulletins.

The present work forms No. 104 of the Bulletin series.

RicHarp RatTHBun, Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, In charge of the United States National Musuem.

Wasuineton, D. C., June 10, 1918.



This paper is the first part of a work the intent of which is to describe and illustrate the Foraminifera of the Atlantic Ocean, especially those species which have occurred in the waters adjacent to the shores of the United States, including the whole of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, that being the area in which most of the work of the vessels of the United States engaged in dredging work has been done. This part includes only the family Astro- rhizidae, which is the most primitive of any of the group.

The various vessels of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. including the Bache, Bluelight, Speedwell, Fish Hawk, and especially the Albatross, have accumulated a mass of dredged material con- sisting of thousands of samples which fairly well represent the bottom of the area mentioned. Besides, there are available a great many of the samples of bottom obtained by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. Other collections have also been used as will be mentioned later.

Except for the work of Dr. James M. flint, published in 1899, ahere is almost nothing published which deals in any considerable tmount with the foraminifera of this region. The region of the North Sea and the waters about the British Isles have been the source of a great mass of published records and a comparison with that area is very interesting.

I wish here to express my deep appreciation of the many kind- nesses and abundant help which the United States National Museum and its staff have so unstintingly given me in the study of this material and in the preparation of this work.



Hed eds to slosdw edt gotbuloat. eatesie beatin’ ods to norte ada oF, déoo; doidw uieets odd gaoied Jad? ,2ec tusddiig’) odd bine orizelt hy ay gathers!) an hagagus esinie. betta ed3 to alaecoy nit Io dow silt te es

st to neiget ed? woigen ails to sisliniingsel aia obity imo

. Sui fiat oil to soiteioongge qoeb ar aeaugZa of yted die itimentt Incoite% aaiaté belie add doiitw gio tashauds ‘hte 2 sid? Ty vbase odb at eoy osvig: qgaiseitens o# Sved Redecest bag

Ye cosu leorg « sldsliavs sie ved? gebiesH bauoitann 8918 adp te :

ost sets tlw fositaqatoo # ban ebroo9: Lehedictisey 10 Bin Iaoty & te

Ae ge a ee : e / x ; hit : 1% u 7; . 1 -) | ry AOTIOGONT


ease. on ae to. signage ER ae in sits jnensibe sew oft oi borunes evad isider caisage scot elbsin

~ettels vinwt edt glao: vobaloat tag aufT .suoh aesd xed show . pty AYBuTy auld lo pn: to arising aeons ake we dont i pebiaide vatiolel t le wssmwdl apiate ‘batiaU edt Ya hapa nike ont qilsmaqes bite sssmpll der Soasbesa’, Aaya adep ode eeelar -aoy [aitatan: beghetb lo eset a bedsluoumos arad seotnlh ada modied alt jagseeiqos ilaw whist doudw tela iiss to abasecasts to ynidate “a

bie eau’) <otsit hatin’) sit vd becistde meotiod to eslquine sdk igh lisa ap best ased, vals avad ‘aitoitaallo- wh aris shbustd, a | nated benon ies an, “URS hk aitaleite 4ait'l dt roca ati Ww Aiow say iol xpoxd aldswbianus yon mi eiael soodw bodeifdig gniddet Teessthe ah Stae

Soto oid aeee aved aolel deisirl add duods ai9ie# 4ilt bis Boe dl Ho or a

_ Quibledisday “Ub T

iow eidt Yo aoilaisgorg oe iti di i “hue Rh) avrtegeuk wiaeol


7 ii as r . iY { 1 7 1 : 7 4 * 2 . : IN ; te \ AU rp A rea Ra = Lo oh : : ie. nit ian 7 - - a ie © 7 en) dj oe Ty ee el i re . ie 7 yes a nA s ie Tim od oe oe Ne ee A) ae


Page OTE CCEA sok wat Sale a ws dew wro ee eee ONE O s oo alow nese sine e es 1 eurces of material and Tecordse.... ...004 ss 0ntr oF OSUON . . oe ses ee eee 2 Selective power of the Foraminifera..................00-0-. BUM oss. si a ReNPRINMMCUDALL Sct a/i. cee Wasa os eda emits bw ORE Se Soe Sonics 6 Order. Foraminifera... 0. csccc cen cies ace wee SUSUR DIOGEA AR), Oo. os a 6 emai ONT 558 cota Bote. ax cerns COTE) oe ale nrasie se fi Family. 2) Astrorhizidae. ..os<< 65 a0. .nr SIUTOIEV IES FI. 2 6 Subfamily. 1. /Astrorhizinae. os 201... KUTISOE. 6 co eso v cee eee- 7 ONUSHABLLOLNIZS 5 aod certs mute cey RO ee ce eens 7 ITI COLA Asch rats east ck cx erent Ee erg er aoe 7 DKCUATIAG. cosic Ate caknraso rE OMIOU Ss MIMI See 9 STAG a son ck xe, aed a ve OI os ans icine LO GRiSeUia Aga aies ven OT RMIQUEIN = 2 Si oe eee 11 PTANUIOSR a wx cared vse oo RO DE 2 heh tevcv tie ajo, c| AONE 12 WEPTUIGHINIB ca arse Soc ce SOR obi nl aoe eae 14 Gentis.habd amming 3c cous cee eM ME asa) ony ner tomer nevarsicees 14 ADYEROTUM s onc tssceeser 2 RIPON. occ cece epee e <8 a 15 VAT LACIA Cc oc SOFA VOIR 5.6 25 cys ecie sie 16 irregularigv cs ..cix.. SOU ENoeel SE)... ok L7 COPMUUA A ee cee wien tees SUE 8S ie Sa cecimesiee 17 var; spiculotesta..< <--> SPUUH AI... ono es Ls IeiQanite pacer ge esd oa oes PU RL Se ceo n cise eater 19 GIBCEC LALA. mercedes aN eee sR DBED. 2 ck ain oe 21 Wars SPLCULOSS yy cor SE MOREIRA, 2) is Sosy sate 22 Genus Marapella cc ics sees en MOUNT, 6 se oan cee 23 GlONZATAS Sow kx Crciere +o ears isserc lel oaseh we ate oS SAUNA PCD aw be ken nod cts a OE aes haw) a a eae 24 MBAS here wo cena oon ce Mb incisor aoe 26 BEHIMNA TA teswins manne MIF IIA TU a ss iw nis oar mies 27 Genus Bathysiphon..i........UsseuT SL, ose pees 27 FAV EF OTIS Breve i ceraveie eke er EEN ae oes toes 27 Capbritonensis..< 1.06.2 F IAAL A. ce 29 SUE UNGCG. yn aso nner he OOU Oh ac os ciepioe nies aaenes 29 TOMAS tap os mrcinite ne were Mee NORA Ne siisc eo teen Uae 29 LUNN UCAS cick ere etal EER aircon PO MARA ANE ice ore cielo EE 30 ATPONTCUBE c<0c5 5s rrers ORD 2 FOUN). cs sei 30 Genus Rhizammina....... RAPTORS on oe oot ie ower 31 SlpaefOrmises 1s rrene sess. ROU ONS. BTID, 2. ee 3h BUGT VARA ee hwanrrzs acter PANG ce ce cence ae oe 32 Subfamily 2) Saccammininae.......SUAUUSMAL 2... e een ene 33 Genus Psammosphaera...........s0l0200 200.2205 | Ae 33 FUROR 225s ss visits os so SAREE. Re eran ase 34 PADVOs sss ceasndeses ven o dl RE. 2 eee se oe 35 POWANAEIs «vena sBNQOU DWE. wo owen wee vecewees 36 PURUICH LG dalek ed e-c-t-ai-as-s oI PETE ais on cio wislnd widaewe ce 37 BESTA COB a 17x PEROT UN hic BE winnie nc win'e on eis ewiswieias 38 PPORNMIR OOD PAREN Tu ch ereias a i ara 3 eine wrote hin sulk are Sralererd Weare 39 CQUING a5 cuneate ee eS wh rsd bitin aoe care me gaees oh 39



Systematic part—Continued. Page, Order Foraminifera (Continued) so acie sas lose eee ae ee Soe ae eee ee 6 Family 2., Astrorhizidae:(Contimutted)oe. ss. ecn2 nset set seeds se 2cee 2 6 Subfamily 2. Saccammininae (Continued).................-.-- 33 Genus Storthosphaera: 2 -cce.cs se ianaes sea loa eee 39 AIbIGRS. secre ee ee win hens eS Oe Peter ee aed 40

ClO BALA. ain.5 cisicin.s siete iano'a is aetenardiats = aia Saeed ee 40

Genus Iridia. =. osoc (oc ccecd de oe ee Be eee ee 41 diaphana jn. sc. 34-25-25 dase tet ease = a eee 41

Genus Raphidoscene:...:2.).:0</. s-Gaiesa 2s bam Sse ose ee ete 42 COMICAL chro 8 ciel wisi tate coe ee 42 Genus/Saccamming ee. s50-. 325 eee ee = URN EE 43 SPRACTICR 5.1 an eS ERR ne Ae Lees MEP E> mn le 44

BOCEATIA opi. ia pe fee Ee ie ee 45

MMNETV UGA 2 235 apa otate rovers av ao skeyebe eve eaeeen cares vie a afare anette ay easte 46

Genus :Proteonina! se vekeets card we ois lero se eee 46 HUSH OrMIS Cs Aare eet eee pce oe ae 47 ditiluciformis: =. ses) see seas PE Ee tyes AT

UE SUE Os eae coe Saban cot coe Han clo Gemooemononosnd sc 49

Micaceal sso his. Lee ees Ce eas come 49

helenae’... <cisn ier, s eiseeeineei se Seen eke ee ceere 50

WiyS Kise oS 53s eos Ue ora cee eee 50 ama ly stoma: =<, eee he, teatro ers coves tanta eal teeny ee 51 Gerus*agenammina:: 2... 5. steeee seeecn ese tem cmises eh 51 Report CULE sicievs erctes ero) ae ete een relma tae erin oh

Genus Pilulina....... peas Seta Bi Set aes aye cache rele ratane eecaa vate Sites ae 51 jefireyetl..-\sijis-.- si Soyeie alas mare aetas Re Siete cake 52

Genus Pelosinaes....22-c-tens a+ = SSeS Mth Miro seta AE Ee 53 Varlalbibias: 222 se he Se eee Ae cease eee eee 53 @yIIMOriCae ssh sous e coe miee Sone cine aer 54

TOCUNG Stas. 3 55 farses ng BOER faci aetee ee aie Dd

TOCbAss os nose ee ee na ieee eine Te See eee 56

PIG VGEN teaser eee eerste ore cere eto arent 56 ATbOLESCENS ss so s/n ca eee etoee sis ere ier s esse Sete 56

Genus Hippocrepina............:..- Habis An eWeR Ae sso aes 57 ING Visa ohh eas a ae ete if

Genus. Technitella ys. 225 ucts eee wos <a seta eee ae 58 lepumions a3. 5 4's. |: pa toe aeenee et antae ho oarer 59

Me Os eos aise pore sye. 2 ioe pepe nse oon ee eee 60 THOMPSONLSS 5.5 seyis alanis ered Malate sc see a's reac carer 61

Genus Webbinella:®....02.04.<..5. 2 aa¢soceee 2 iocieaee since ae 61 hemisphaericay. :..2.-..2isicoeis des se adeeni Seen 62

Genius Tholosina: sos eee hee Solos we aie eee 63 bullazccacsiias coh os. rap eee taea: sie oe ne ee eee 63 Wesiculariex. as2<cuceaesua seeders eae leseiaene eee 65

Genus Crithtonina.:... 2... cssyssee se see oo eee eee oes 67 mamillacncsc = ckcssos curs octen en os ee eater 67

PISUM 52 ose bocce sie ee =e Eee Caner eee 68

Vat. hispidas: ...~ te sea sae eee 68

DTAMNUIM Sores syatein sis otal oc cet oe ere Sratesreleioin era tetarr= 69

var. subsimplex:. . 22 3ieieeaeesas <nie 3 --e ees 69


Systematic part—Continued. Page,

Oedor horamiriters (CONLMUCH). ou... caccesies.oe nena ves cines onceseneca 6

Hamiuy 2. Astrorhinidae (Continued) << 25c...scsvewseecics esc ciaewese 6

Subfamily 2. Saccammininae (Continued)................-.-.. 33

Genus bHuUrammingn+oo2 uc eee eee eae tole eee ele Br ate 70

PAPUA AC eee cee keene meee Siee Seas eo en 70

AUDI CAMA Spi see eae e Sa Poway yh Sete neces Prey see Gi reas (pl

CANI GSA i- th Bie beepnyaeank eee BEL Hae Pera yo be 0? 72

TA OSD eA Se Bm eee ae oie ee RISE EIR as eee ENS 72

COMPLOSsAs ea oewc tees as Senators ecm eee ese 73

BUbiamntly)o. -ELy PeramMMiMINAe cos. c ccs ccsce ecto eea ewe nace 73

(7ERUR MED neraRaMinia? Soo hoe a SS ee Ee tees oe 7

Clon CATR e reese nsn a ae) eee enn leore 74

PDE R UES ee ie ste eer Fee eee ade tre Pe ese eres 75

SUT OC OSS setae ectea acai saree eater on natal Rens tenea 76

Pip vas aise estos cs Soot ae oe mente eee baci 77

CISCO THe eee ee ee Se Ep ee ea a 78

(Crenua Ee samM MA tod CNGTON a. 6. 6e 55 ee eee ee ee ee 79

ALHOLESCONSe oa. e eee se Be PRN See? aA ph PO 79

(Ons HeAIAMO PAIS sss hoe oe ec ee tenn rears tre 80

SV cAU earn Grid eee os tape teen ere ney wey ine 1 oP egae 80 GFENUSISACCODNIZ eas Sateen a oh okays oe Sec areisies Hee ee oe eee Sie

PTTL OS Ae eee eye et ee en aI EG erate 81

(Grau le sy falter | ork cor: ee een a aL A eves eR ty Sue eer ae genet © 83

PASE SSUMIAL GORE atin are ceels ere eke -nintie aaa os see 83

CETIUBRISCHLGL] tee Perry ee ee coer ee dere Prue ieee te kes See ARES ys ner oe 83

ACURA TS oie cre Sule she wc iociaicto eet ares Sek eet 84

Ob tUsdes seen. eee see ate Unione ee ee eee 85

Genus Dendrophryascs te ccs- ots Se etic t a): sce oa eaae ee 85

RT OCLAE Eee a este rors matce Bee tats st nisior si oiapaein aise 86

TADS SL eye ee ena teat ne eae ee Enr By meine eases SRT 86

CEng Harpe YSCNines.... areas Chote an Seas eee cele 86

POMANG WACZI Ae ee ate eae eee hea oes 87

PUNT LOS ITN roe eer. eee Are ere Se 88

Supianll vets Ammedinenae. 5.-.....c. soos Goce qos Gace Sa ctes c 88

GOnlineAMIMG aDORa see cr xs eee Ros eee as sae oe 89

CLV AEM asi or ee chee ee ee a ee aoe 89

CTENUS GInVANe lI Aton enone evn Nees | Ua TN ee ees 91

WARADS Sate citisie eneyet serene = clases sites) 4 esto latete tae aroie eater 91

REVI A hs Fe Oh re isch wisi 0 ae ees aie 93

BSG ELEN LTA Viera yt Re Wee an LP ee A Soho oy Le Sh Ne ee 94

(ONMIARA TINO GISGUS 52) a tise idee ree yo ois cis cya ae eile 95

INGORUMS Sea ee ee ae oi Se ost ee mo ee 95

Genus Ammediscoides........... A RE A anes ce aN ape 97

UUTD UA b UBER e ett. Sele mee. ee eae bier 98

Genk (lomonpire wc stent. Ue ies cece int tlre, Menage cieme d 99

ECE ts Nee gt ann Ed Belang oat Got 99

GIANT OVER eer ash eee iets hates es ee ute Ue Stes ork 100

Gers: Curritellelinw=. eee ss te es ne ects xe eis os ae 101

SOM CAMA SES ens, as ot re Ne wrens So a weeeee s 102

Bpectabilisie pet weeess Mee OS lot ol seed Sates te 102

MUR MMMNER ARO ONY TEINS. ofa Ts 33 rola on pele Wane Cele ve & Abid e'dlw is a:dn oe wesw 103

i roel cS Part 4 : ret el eg i i. EU ote a AP ¥ Z é i 4 _ beh TE LGA Lied A RL <‘ 7 ie a pd ai5h he fF, a : 7 oe

; ea caer) | mbid

os OLS 5 weg sy

“yh eis een! Ae yi - > i ee aL) t\ "a4 Aide Shae GA, apt ld : i.


aoe: i a : s eo x An as ORS ite

ue ph aes



By JosepH AUGUSTINE CUSHMAN, Of the Boston Society of Natural History.


In a previous work on the Foraminifera of the North Pacific Ocean' the writer has given a general account of the Foraminifera. For a more lengthy and detailed account the reader is referred to Chapman’s volume on the Foraminifera, 1902.

From the fact that much of the work on Recent Foraminifera has been. done by English and French workers the area about the British Isles and the immediate coast of Europe is better known than any other region. As a result the known foraminiferal fauna of the eastern North Atlantic is very considerable. The work of Sars, Goés, Williamson, Parker, Jones, H. B. Brady, Robertson, Siddall, Chaster, Wright, Sidebottom, Heron-Allen, Earland, Pearcey, D’Orbigny, Schlumberger, de Folin, Schaudinn, Rhumbler, and many others has made a formidable mass of literature on the recent foraminifera of this region. From the western Atlantic Bailey, Goés, and Flint especially have given us many records from the American coast including the West Indies.

From the deeper regions the Challenger expedition with those of the Porcupine, Knight Errant, Goldseeker, Albatross, and many other expeditions have added greatly to the mass of records from this ocean basin.

The Atlantic being shallower than the North Pacific has much greater deposits of globigerina ooze with comparatively small areas of red clay. The great development of shallow water continental shelf areas on the Atlantic coasts of Europe and America makes prolific areas for many species, while the coral reefs of the warmer regions of the West Indies give a great development of the character- istic species of such warm waters.

That there are very well developed areas of distribution is shown by the records of the species of this single family. As a rule, the

1 Bulletin 71, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1910-1917,


arenaceous foraminifera are characteristic of cooler and deeper waters and they are much more abundant on the American side at corres- ponding latitudes than on the European side as a result of the differ- ence in oceanic temperature conditions due to the opposite influence of the warm Gulf Stream on Europe and the cold Greenland current on the American side. As with mollusca, echinoderms, and other groups, several areas of distribution seem to be distinguishable on our Own eastern coast. The region north of Cape Cod and Georges Banks is very different from the region to the south of this area. Another very definite line of demarcation seems to be the region of Cape Hatteras. Many of the northern species seem not to go south of this line, and their distribution is apparently largely determined in this region by temperature conditions. The limits of distribution of the species of warmer waters will be more graphically shown by other groups of species rather than those of this family.

A series of maps has been kindly furnished by the United States National Museum, and these have been used to plot the recorded distribution of each species. By this means definite distributional areas are more or less distinctly made out, although data from many areas is yet unavailable.


The main source of material for the present work has been the dredgings and hydrographic soundings of the United States Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross, for this family especially the dredgings which are much more likely to have an abundance of the coarser material than the hydrographic soundings. In addition the work at an earlier time of the Bache, Bluelight, and Speedwell off the coast of New England has added considerably, especially in the way of rock specimens. The lish Hawk has been dredging for many years m the shallower water off our Atlantic coasts and the accumulated material of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey has also been available butinsmallsamples and usually from veryshallow waters. Altogether, however, the amount of material from our Atlantic coast is very considerable. Although of little use in this present family the ma- terial dredged by Henderson and Bartsch in the various parts of the West Indies and along the Florida coast will be very useful in supplementing the deeper water material from this region.

Vith the work of the Porcupine and Knight Errant expeditions and the North Polar and Austro-Hungarian expeditions recorded in the Challenger report, together with the work of Goés and Kiaer on the Arctic and Scandinavian areas, these cover a very large amount of the ocean bottom. Later expeditions, such as that of the Plankton expedition, supplement the work. Of more intensive work that of the Clare Island survey and of the Goldseeker about the British


Isles and in the North Sea area the material of which is now being published by Heron-Allen and Earland gives a great deal of new information for an area worked over previously in a more or less incomplete way.

From all these records and especially from the work of Heron- Allen and Earland it is at once clear that there are two general groups of species of foraminifera, those of general distribution and others of very local distribution. The species, such as Psammosphaera bow- manni and P. rustica, Technitella thompsoni, and others are very unique and seem to be rather limited in their distribution. Others, like Proteonina micacea, Girvanella frigida, and Hyperammana distorta are limited also on this side, although this may be due to lack of ma- terial connecting the two areas.

The isolation of certain species in Moray Firth at very limited stations seems to show that the species of foraminifera or at least many of them are not universally distributed.


With the Astrorhizidae and to a certain extent with the following family, Lituolidae, the material of the test is to a greater or less extent made of foreign material taken from the ocean bottom on which it lives and cemented into a test. When it is considered that this is brought about by a single-celled organism without organs or specially developed sense cells of any sort it is very interesting that a definite selection takes place in the mixed material on which the animal lives on the ocean bottom. That this simple protoplasmic bit has a definite power of selection in the material of its test 1s very startling. Whether it is a reaction due to chemical stimulation or to tactile reactions in the case of spicules does not seem to be known. As fixed species have accumulated considerable amounts of spicules or other definite fragments it would seem in most cases as though they must have moved about freely and accumulated this material in the protoplasmic body before the test was made.

As of general interest and as the series of selections is subject to a dofinite gradation it is given here at some length.


Chitinous.—In Rhizammina indivisa there is a basal chitinous layer to which the various foreign particles are attached and the lining is separate from them, persisting even when the surface material is rubbed away. Asimilar base is found in Pelosina and other genera.

Ferruginous.—In the majority of the genera of these two families there is a yellowish or reddish-brown cement which may be used sparingly to cement together the sand grains of the test, asin Rhab- dammina, or to make the mass of the test in which the sand grain


constituents are imconspicuous as in Ammodiscus. This cement gives the characteristic color to many of the species of the family.

Siliceous.—In a few species there seems to be a siliceous cement, as it is unaffected by acids. Many species either secrete or collect fine amorphous siliceous material which is used in the building of the test wall.


No apparent selection.—A number of species, including those of the genus Astrorhiza, simply consolidate more or less firmly the material of the ocean bottom, mud, sand grains, other foraminifera, sponge spicules, etc., indiscriminately into more or less regular tests, the outside usually friable, the inner portion commonly firmer. In such tests as these there seems to be no attempt at any selection, the purpose seeming to be to form a somewhat hard protection to the protoplasmic body.

General selection.—Various groups of the arenaceous foraminifera have some power of selection in that they take some general consti- tuent of the bottom. For instance, Rhabdammina usually in its various species uses sand grains or occasionally spicules. This seems to be mainly a case of leaving out one element at the expense of another. Fragments of the harder materials are taken instead of the softer mud or, as in tha case of Crithionina, taking the finer material and discarding the coarser. As there is no particular power shown in the fitting of these particular groups of material in any definite way except in the matter of the smoothness of finish of the exterior or interior surfaces, the selection can not compare with that which is found in the next group.

Specific selection.—In a few cases the various species seem to have a great power of selection of the material of the test and in the arrange- ment of the particles which have been selected. The genus Psam- mosphaera, building a generally rounded or irregular test with a single cavity and no definite aperture, has in the various North Atlantic species a great power of specific selection and arrangement.

The common P. fusca uses only sand grains, cementing them firmly together, often with a lighter colored cement. Off the coast of the Carolinas specimens are abundant which have taken only black grains, although other colored ones are present as well in the bottom material. The size is not definite and often im smaller specimens the whole of one side will be formed by a single large grain.

P. parva has a habit of building a test of sand grains of much more even size and usually adds to the test a single large acerose sponge spicule which is built into the wall and projects on either side often to a distance as great as the diameter of the test itself. That this is entirely accidental can not be held, for the specimens without


the spicules are few and I have never seen one with a short or broken spicule, but always with a very long uninjured one.

P. testacea builds its test of other foraminifera and lives especially as would be expected in globigerina ooze. The tests are not alike - nor of the same size nor shape, but sand grains are almost never used, while in the same dredge haul may be other genera and species largely made up of sand grains.

In P. bowmanni there is a selection by which only mica flakes are used, these being cemented together by their edges, making a weak and irregular test. Such specimens, however, rarely show any sand grains and the selective power must be considerable, for in most bottom material the amount of mica flakes is not great. ~

Lastly, in P. rustica is a species with an even greater ingenuity. It uses large acerose spicules for the main lines of its polygonal test, then fills in the sides with broken spicules, fitting each to the poly- gonal area between the three or more borders of that surface. The long edge spicules are the only ones that extend beyond the face of the wall, the others being fitted as though cut off at the various lengths. The only explanation of the building of such a test as this is that the material is ingested in the protoplasm and then at a certain stage carried to the outside of the protoplasmic body to form the test, and that the distribution of the inner broken spicules is mechanically arranged and the whole cemented.

In the genus Technitella there is also a marked selection. T. melo, for example, has a rounded test built entirely of sponge spicules, these placed lengthwise of the test and firmly cemented. In T. legqumen, which is sometimes found with the former species, fine amorphous white material is also used with the spicules and two layers of spicules are distinguished, the inner running transversely and the outer lengthwise. As a result a strong test is developed when the amount of spicules is considerable. In 7. thompsoni there is a Very unique condition in which the test is made up of the dis- integrated plates of a brittle star. The amount of these plates in any given area can not be very great, yet the animal obtains sufficient numbers of them to build its test from these entirely, using probably hundreds of individual plates in the process.




Pseudopodia of fine threads, freely anastomosing to form a net- work; test typically with many minute foramina, in one family with a single aperture; wall of the test composed of chitinous or calca- reous material when secreted, or of agglutinated sand, sponge spi- cules, shells, etc., usually secreting either no silica or a very little under certain conditions.

Family 1. GROMIDAE.

Test usually chitinous, sometimes with a covering of foreign mate- rial; apertures one or more; as a rule inhabiting fresh or brackish waters.

As most of the material of this paper is based upon dredged mate- rial and has been examined dry little opportunity has been had for obtaining material of this family. Papers by Rhumbler‘ and Calkins ? may be referred to as having Atlantic data for this family.


Test composed of agglutinated material for the most part, occa- sionally with a chitinous inner layer, consisting of a chamber with several openings or a tubular test open at both ends, or in certain forms, of a closed chamber with a single aperture, but throughout the family the test is not divided into a series of chambers.

The species included in this family build tests of agglutinated material, often placed outside a chitinous base as in Rhizammina, Pelosina, etc. The simplest species, such as found in the genus Astrorhiza, simply gather about the soft parts the mud or débris from the bottom and agglutinate it somewhat with a small amount of cement, the central chamber corresponding to the main part of the cell and the arms to the pseudopodia. Next in order are tests with definite openings and later a test closed at but one point, which serves as the aperture, such as Pelosina, Pilulina, ete., or with sev- eral apertures, Thurammina. From this the series leads to the species having a definite globular proloculum or initial chamber and a second chamber of greater or less length, Hyperammina, Ammo- discus, ete.

i Arch. Prot., vol. 3, 1903, pp. 181-294. *Marine Protozoa from Woods Hole, Bull. U. S. Fish. Comm., vol. 21, 1900 (1902), pp. 415-468.


Test consisting usually of a tube open at both ends or in some spe- cies of Astrorhiza with several tubes entering a central chamber; in some species with the tube branching (Rhabdammina irregularis, Rhizammina algaeformis, etc.).

Included in this subfamily are five genera, Astrorhiza, Rhabdammina, Marsipella, Bathysiphon, and Rhizammina. With the exception of the first, we know very little concerning the animal, excepting for the material of which the test is made; each consists of a simple or branching tube open at the ends, except in some species of Astrorhiza, where there are several tubes and a single central chamber. The growth seems to take place by the addition of material at the open ends of the tube, thus increasing the length. The openings are often variously protected by an accumulation of foreign particles, sponge spicules, etc.

Genus ASTRORHIZA Sandahi, 1857.

Astrorhiza SANDAuL (type, Astrorhiza limicola Sandahl), Ofv. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Férh., vol. 14, No. 7, 1857, p. 299.—H. B. Brapy, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9, 1884, p. 230.—Funt, Ann. Rep. U.S. Nat. Mus., 1897 (1899), p. 265.—RuumMBter, Arch. Prot., vol. 3, 1903, p. 216.—CusaMan, Bull. 71, U.S. Nat. Mus., pt. 1, 1910, p. 19.

Astrorhiza+ Rhabdammina (part) Enter and Fickerrt, Zeitschr.wiss. Zool., vol. 65, 1899, p. 666.

Ammodiscus CARPENTER and JEFFREYS, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 1870, p. 159 (not Ammodiscus Reuss, 1871).

Arenistella Fiscuer and pr Four, Les Fonds de la Mer, vol. 2, 1872, p. 26.

Astrodiscus F. E. Scuutze, I Jahr. Comm. wis. Unt. deutsch. Meer in Kiel, vol. 1, 1875, p. 113.

Haeckelina Bessexs, Jen. Zeitschr., vol. 9, 1875, p. 265.

Description.—Test free, flattened or tubular, stellate or subcylin- drical, composed of a central chamber with communicating tubular portions to the exterior in the compressed species or of an irregular tubular chamber in the subcylindrical ones; wall composed of sand or mud loosely cemented, often with an inner lining of chitinous material.

Most of the species appear to be characteristic of cool-water condi-

tions, although A. vermiformis is a species apparently as far as is known limited to the Gulf of Mexico.

ASTRORHIZA LIMICOLA Sandahl. Plate 1,ffigs. 1, 2.

Astrorhiza limicola Sanvauu, Ofvers Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akad. Férhandl., vol. 14, 1857, p. 299, pl. 3, figs.5, 6.—Letipy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1875, p. 65, fig. —P. Fisuer, Journ. Zool., vol. 4, 1875, p. 505, pl. 16, figs. 1-4.— Norman, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, vol. 25, 1876, p. 213.—H. B. Brapy, Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., vol. 19, 1879, p. 48.—Biirscnus, in Bronn, Klassen


und Ordnungen Thier-Reichs, 1880, p. 194, pl. 5, fig. 11.—H. B. Brapy, Rep. Voy. Challenger, Zoology, vol. 9, 1884, p. 231, pl. 19, figs. 1-4.—A. Agassiz, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zodél., vol. 15, 1888, p. 161, fig. 489—Woopwarp, The Observer, vol. 4, 1893, p. 78.—Goks, Kongl. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Handl., vol. 25, No. 9, 1894, p. 12, pl. 1, figs. 1-3.—Ruumster, Zeitschr. Allgem. Physiol., vol. 2, .1902, p. 204, fig. 46; Arch. Prot., vol. 3,'1903, p. 217, fig. 36 (in text).—CusHMAN, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 34, 1908, p. 22.—Herron-AtLEN and Earnanp, Journ. Quekett Micr. Club, ser. 2, vol. 10, 1909, p. 407, pl. 33, fig. 1.—CusHman, in Sumner, Osburn, and Cole, Bull. Bureau U. S. Fisheries, vol. 31, pt. 2, 1911, p. 549.—Herron-AtLen and Eartanp, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 20, 1915, p. 607.

Arenistella elegans (nomen nudum) FisHer and Drroun, Les Fonds de la Mer, vol. 2, 1870, p. 26; 1872, vol. 2, p. 52.

Ammodiscus lindahli CarPENTER and Jerrreys, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 1870, p. 159.

Astrodiscus arenaceus F. E. ScHunzr, in Jahresb. Komm. wiss. Untersuch. Deutsch Meere, vol. 1, 1875, p. 118, pl. 2, fig. 10.

Haeckelina gigantea Bresseis, Jenaische Zeitsch, fiir nat., vol. 9, 1875, p. 265.

Description.—Test free, compressed, irregularly stellate; com- posed of a central disk from which horizontal arms radiate horizon- tally around the peripheral region, variable in length and of irregular form, usually long and slender, often irregularly bifurcating at the tips, 5-15 in number; wall thick, composed of mud with fine sand grains, or in some cases entirely of rather coarse sand grains, interior with a chininous lining, smooth, exteriorly roughened; ends of the arms serving as apertures; wall grayish or yellowish, interior yel- lowish brown.

Diameter, including arms, up to 15 mm.

Distribution.—From the available records this is a species of shal- low waters and for the most part of temperate to cool regions. ‘The following are the Atlantic records: Coast of Bohuslan, Skager-Rack, Sweden (Sandahl, Loven); coast of Norway (Norman); off Heligo- land, 21 fathoms (Schulze); off Dunbar (Balfour); west coast of Scotland, 10-20 fathoms (Robertson, Herdman); Northumberland and Durham (Brady); Torbay, Devon (Norman); coast of Connec- ticut, 25 fathoms, and Maine (Bessels, Verrill); off Block Island; south of Newport and south of Marthas Vineyard (Verrill); Anti- costi and Gaspé Peninsula (Woodward); Vineyard Sound, 13 fathoms (Cushman), and off Cape Ann.

Heron-Allen and Earland record a single specimen from the Kerimba Archipelago off the eastern coast of Africa.

from the specimens I have been able to study, the material of the test depends very greatly upon the character of the bottom. The specimens from Gaspé and from the sandy portion of Vineyard Sound have the tests made of coarse quartz sand very largely, and very little mud or fine material is used in their construction.


Astrorhiza limicola—material examined.

| | Bot- Cat | No. of ie eere tom | Charac- | a pun- No. | Coll. of— | speci- Station. | Locality. | fath- | tem- | | ter of dazios : mens. | oms, | Pera- | bottom | | | * | ture.

| eee BSNH. LO lee cwaceneeerat ee a ons Swale oot an croak B.S.N.H.| 3 |.................| Vineyard Sound, Mass...|.......|......-|.-.-------| Common, cae US.N.M.| 10+ | U.S.C. sta. | Of Marthas Vineyard, |.......|......|.cc...ccs[eeeeeeeeees

| 987 (1881). | Mass. | | | ASTRORHIZA ARENARIA Norman, Plate 2, figs. 1-3; plate 3, fig. 1.

Astrorhiza arenaria NORMAN, Proc. Roy, Soc. London, vol. 25, 1876, p. 218.—H. B. Brapy, Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., vol. 29, 1879, p. 48.—Birsca.t, in Bronn, Klassen und Ordungen, Thier-Reichs, 1880, p. 294, pl. 5, fig. 12.—H. B. Brapy, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 11, 1882, p. 711; Rep. Voy. Chal- lenger, Zoology, vol. 9, 1884, p. 232, pl. 19, figs. 5-10.—Goks, Kong]. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handlingar, vol. 25, No. 9, 1894, p. 12, pl. 2, figs. 4-10.— Frint, Ann. Rep. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1897 (1899), p. 265, pl. 3, fig. 2—Raum- BLER, Arch. Prot., vol. 3, 1903, p. 217, fig. 37 (in text)—K1AER, in Duc d’Orleans, Croisiére Océanographique dans la Mer du Gronland, 1905 (1907), p. 559.—Herron-AtLen and Earianp, Journ. Quekett Micr. Club, ser. 2, vol. 10, 1909, p. 407, pl. 33, fig. 2—Prarcry, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vol. 49, 1914, p. 997.

Astrorhiza limicola M. Sars (nomen nudum) (not A. limicola Lindahl), Forh. Vid. Selsk. Christiania, 1868, p. 248.—CarrEenter, Proc. Roy. Soc. London, vol. 17, 1868, p. 173.—G. O. Sars, Forh. Vid. Selsk. Christiania, 1871 (1872),

. 202.

Wheres: sp., CARPENTER, Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci., vol. 16, 1876, p. 221, pl. 19.

Description.—TYest compressed, typically with a subcircular mass from which radiate short, stout arms, variable in number, or some- times elongate with short lateral branches; radiate forms with a rounded central chamber from which the tubular arms are given off; wall thick composed of loosely agglutinated grayish sand, outer surface friable and rough, inner surface smoother and firmer; aper- tures at the ends of the tubular extensions of the central chamber, usually more or less choked with fine sand grains.

Diameter, up to 15 mm.

Distribution.—Specimens on the European side of the Atlantic are known from the coasts of Norway and Sweden, off Spitzbergen,