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154 INDEX. Page Page Sarcoptilus, Gray, 0. g. ..........00005 45 | Turbo gemmatus, Reeve, n. sp. ...... 50 Sarcoptilus grandis, Gray, n.sp. ... 45 histrio, Reeve, n. sp. .....2....+. 52 WLU onan eee any esas pi susesxeecesets 119 | ——Japonicus, Reeve, n. sp. ......... 51 SAE Y EN eo aso esa aen cian cRseaeee 115 laminiferus, Reeve, n. sp. ...... 49 Scalp clin viii eciss seaesttneiwcwasless 44 lugubris, Reeve, n. sp. ......... 50 Scheeniclus magnus, Gould, n.sp.... 39 Natalensis, Reeve, n. sp. .....- 49 Sciurus dorsalis, Gray, n. sp........-- 138 | —— nivosus, Reeve, n. sp.......22.-.- 51 SIME AEDT pods ae vee caveuesea tetas 53 | —— militaris, Reeve, n. sp. ......... 51 SEPRID AO Peco, repre. ot sone Sod see 27 murreus, feeve, n. sp. ......... 49 Spheriodactylus ...10......02.ceeeeseeee 61 porcatus, Reeve, n. sp. ......... 51 SPA QUTUBID noes assasccsss-crsssna tte 65 | —— pustulatus, Reeve, n. sp.......... 50 Squilla multicarinata, White, n. sp... 144 | —— pyropus, Reeve, n. SPs iio de sete. STENORHYNCHUS, Owen .......0.00- 88 saxosus, Reeve, i. Sp.........0.-- 49 Streptaxis uberiformis, Pfr., n. sp... 108 trochoides, Reeve, n. sp. ...... 50 Strix passerina, Temm. ............... 37 | ——- tumidulus, Reeve, n. sp.......... 51 Strub hi Onde) <es.c3.seeo0on« eect 4,7 turcicus, Reeve, n. sp. .......-. 50 Sus Indicus, Gray .scsesdes.ccdsesceoke bow |) Pipinta ccetadss 6 gabe. d cwsstctlene oes 23 Taxnpea, Waterh.\ocss.+2.n90te oe ke 86) | Pupatnal cc. .cctsaseseces Ss arenes eae 23 Testudo mauritanica, Dum. et Bib. 38 | Ursipa, Grates Scsckzcctsotentheeeeeee 86 tabulata, Walb. csc... .icecevosceas 38s |) Unsina; Gray . 2.2... Seeder 75, 85 Thaliella, Gray, n. 2. .........eeeceeeee BAe) Orgs eee Bas ato ouice, Seca 75 Thaliella ornata, Gray ......006.0..05 Ad-| Unsus, 2annoci:. 25.56 eee 86 Thalurania, Gould, n. g. ...........0.05 13 | Vespertilio emarginatus, Brongn. ... 112 Thalurania viridipectus, Gould, n. Bps.-LS% |; VOBON, «5. caesusacsacueteo Ss hyenas ees 86 Thymallus vulgaris, Nils. ............ 38 | Vitrina abyssinica, Riipp., n.sp. ... 108 Totanus griseopygius, Gould, n. sp. 39 | —— apertas, Becher Me Spel. coonec oan 107 Tragelaphus Angasii, Gray, n. sp.... 89 | —— Beckiana, P/r., n. Bp set aee 105 TRICHECINA, GI@y .........c00cceees 85, 88 | —— Bensoni, P/fr., n. sp. ..........+- 107 (PRICHEGUS v-¥2.: cds < ene tne ees 88 | —— bicolor, Beck., n. sp. .......000+ 104 TUS OSMRIR Soc ood crotch test ene 44 crenularis, Beck., n. Sp. ...+..... 106 Trochilus amethysticollis ............ 12 | —— Cumingii, Beck., n. sp. ......... 104 BONGDGNERS sac... cascneessauevece 11 grandis, Beck., n. sp. ..-......... 108 caligatus, Gould, n. sp. ........- 14 Guimarasensis, Beck., n. sp. ... 104 Clarisse, Boure. ...........0....0- 12 | —— gutta, P/r., n. sp. ...... see 105 —— cupripennis....... aaepeck. muse ie 12 hians, Ripp., n.sp. ....- matte 107 CTU LARONOLUS.\ 2. 5. cease arenes 14 | —— Leytensis, Beck., n. sp.......... 105 GUETINNG cos a soce kee aes baat 14 margarita, Beck., n. sp.......... 104 ROUANTROD sosascckvectdds.aeBeneiee 11 | —— monticola, Benson, n. sp. ...... 107 —— SANGENMN, on uso Sess teased 14 | —— papillata, Pfr., n. sp............. 106 NIGTOFASCIALUS. .....60e.ccaeceeeese 13 planulata, Pfr., n.sp. ..... -... 106 Pamela, 255 sno OR an acaas aces 12 | —— politissima, Beck., n.sp. ...... 105 SAUCE ON nes oa 2aade vanetenee est 14 | ——resiliens, Beck., n.sp. ........- 106 —— Spencei, Boure. ..........0....00+ 12 | ——rufescens, Pfr., n. sp. ......... 106 SCVOPRAIANUS.........000.ceseeceeees 12 Riippelliana, Pfr. ............06 107 Troglodytes Gorilla, Sav. ......... 53-56 smaragdulus, Beck., n. sp....... 104 NAGOT ics sotplloa stow te+sscae ss 27, 30-35 virens, Pfr., . Sp. sessee..-seeees 108 NIGER) |Ge0f...-<acccaacceecses ses thiOo || .9 VAVEXTASsconrseelt stloees ears aceeseeee 78 Savagei, Owen, n. sp. ......+04.- 2fh|)") VIBVAERIDAL oe Ans cne nn epnesnemaceteereed 87 —— SAVAGEI, Owen .......00...005 53-56 | Viverra malaccensis.............cseeeees 77 Turbo articulatus, Reeve, n.sp....... 51 | VIVERRIDAL...ccc..cecceeeeeeceeceee «.. 80 Circularis, Reeve, n. sp. ......... 51 | VIVERRINA ......ccccessesseeeeesecece cae 3287 corallinus, Reeve, n. sp.....++... DOH) VOUPES, Gray. icc. .scscs<ordetne ees 87 fluctuatus, Reeve, n. sp........+- 52

Printed by Ricnarp and Joun E, Taytor, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street.









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With References to the several Articles contributed by each.

Apams, A., Esq., R.N., F.L.S. page Monograph of the Recent Species of T’rigonia, including the description of a New Species from the Collection of H.

Caine Bag se RL es en Ses a eee: sa Roe

On the animal of Geomelania. . . ae eS Descriptions of New Species of Shells fen the Collection

if Gt .Cuming;. Baga oss. os Ss Ae ae 8) eID Bairp, W., M.D., F.L.S. Monograph of the Family Limnadiade, a family of Ento- mostracous Crustacea . .. . OG BG e: Helihy Om

Bianp, Dr., Corr. Memb. CHG ie cg ce ap vce ch ab Pee dhe es kk bie oe BonAPARTE, Prince. On the Lorine Genus of Parrots, Aeclectus, with the de- scription of a New Species, Eiclectus Cornelia . . . + ~ 142

Bourcuier, R. I., Esq., Corr. Memb. Letters cutchh-durs) bisaaccateceh. cabionthe dct skated) nes esac oe hoe BurTEerwortTH, Lieut.-Col. Letter relating to the shipment of some additions to the Society’s:Menagerie 89802.) 22 WN he PLO? Pe NT Davy, Joun, M.D., F.R.S. L. & E. Notice of a peculiarity of structure observed in the Aorta of the Wild Swan (communicated by Mr. Gulliver) . . - 28

Doustepay, E., Esq., F.L.S. Exhibition of specimens of the Larva, Pupa, and perfect Insect, of Siver gigas «<4. ciny snows Yiselsnde alee, 28


Duncan, JoHN, =a H.M. Vice-Consul at Whydah. page Letter. . . SUSY ets ome OG Letter relating to his Tiegpiew ith ihe King of Dahomey 163

EvpuinsTon, A., Esq. Letter relating to a Collection made for the Society in Sie sec Sey d cite eve Comte nt eR ee ne

Forses, Prof. EpwArD, F.R.S. &e. Introductory Note to Mr. Huxley's Paper on Trigonia . 30

Gasxotn, J. S., Esq. Description of seven New Species of Marginella, and two DE its oy he eee hay One Ae ORR MRR AE aR DE coe)

Gou cp, J., Esq., F.R.S. Description of a New Species of Nutcracker . . . - - 23 Description of two New Species, with the characters of a New Genus, of Zrochilide ... - 95 On New Species of Mammalia and Birds Aa janet 109 Descriptions of three New Species of Indian Birds. . . 112

Grace, W., Esq. eter. . vs) aus “gms vs 3 eee aioe Ceo

Gray, G. R., Esq., F.L.S. Notice of two examples of the Genus Gallus . . . . 62 On a New Species of the Genus Glareola. . . whe 63 Description of a New Species of the Genus Cultrides.. - 63

Gray, J. E., Esq., F.R.S.

Descriptions of three New Species of Delphinide . ee On some New or little known Species of Monkeys. . - 7 Description of a New Species of Herpestes . . +. ~. + Il Description of a New Species of Box-Tortoise from

Mexico . 16 Notes on the Skull of ee Henionsa sic vcs Kiting 29 On a very large Roe Deer (C. deucotis) in the collection

of the Earlof Derby . . -up-opitetat-tephad GM On the Genus Bradypus of Binnie - of 65 Description of some Corals, including a new British Coral

discovered by W. MacAndrew, Esq. . . .. .- - + « 74 On the British Specimens of Regalecus . . . 78 On the variation in the Teeth of the Crested Seal (Coa

phora cristata), and on a New Species of the Genus from

the West Indies . . . oO AES: tee Oe OM On the Species of Aha vw « SSG BE 0 Weekes

Gray, J. E., Esq., F.R.S. On the Cyprea umbilicata and C. eximia of Sowerby. .



Description of a New Species of Gorgonia from Australia 146 Description of a New Genus and several New Species of Terrestrial, Fluviatile and Marine Molluscous Animals in- habiting New Zealand . - 164 Gutiiver, G., Esq., F.R.S. Note on the Spermatozoa of the Giraffe x! Guny, R., Esq. On the Habitat of Cyprea umbilicata, Sowerby. In a Letter to J. E. Gray, Esq. ae’, Sy del altle aie Caen ees Harris, Lord, Governor of Trinidad. Petier sis evilewiediot eo use») Site 64 Hay, J. Drummonp, Esq. Letter offering to present Gazelles, and promising to trans- mit the Reptiles found in the neighbourhood of Tangier . 62 Hirt, Ricwarp, Esq. Letter relating to the subject of procuring Reptiles for TRE SMMICLY ICOM SPAIAIGH cae te es iw ape te ee SOM Hora, J. H., Esq: Exhibition of a female specimen of Ovis Gmelini, from ‘TaQer Wieieueeestate CFU ose, siete, oo) gle es ise fa Od Houxtey, G., Esq., R.N. Description of the Animal of Trigonia, from actual dis- section, with an introductory Note by Prof. E. Forbes, F.R.S. 30 Jonas, Dr. Description of a New Species of the Genus Thracia. Com- municated by H. Cuming, Esq. . ; 170 Keraart, W. C., Esq. Letterseaet ae 91 Kepret, Hon. Capt., R.N. Letter relating to a young female Uran Utan - 106 MELVILLE, Dr., M.R.C.S. Continuation of his Observations concerning the Ideal Vertebra Stee ERE ale dale F ettl sted h es. be fel kD Oral exposition of Dr. Kaup’s views of the Natural Ar- rangement of Birds . 94

} j


MircHELt, D. W., Esq., B.A., F.L.S., Sec.Z.S. page Notice of a Hybrid pe Bat 25% hatched in the Menagerie . . oS EIS LF, 2S CES. 7

Notice of a Hybrid Bull . OLN OY SE IO GOR Ree, 172

Morcuisoy, Sir R. I., G.C.St.S. Letter relating to the Aurochs. . . . «©». » = - 32

Morray, Hon. C. A., H.M. Consul-General in Egypt. Letters relating to Collections made in Egypt . 33, 64, 106 Letter relating to a Hippopotamus presented to the So- ciety by HH. Abbas Pasha. . . . . . . . ~ « - 163

Partsy, Major. Notice of the capture of Orthagoriscus Mola off the Chesil iBank; Dorsetshire aie® tere cies hi Sahel Tans wae, 4, ee eG

PFEIFFER, Dr. L. Descriptions of twenty-four New Species of Helicea, from the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq. . . - : . £26 Descriptions of twelve New Species of Vitrina sd Sea cinea, from the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq.. . . » 132 Descriptions of thirty New Species of Tornatellina, Cylin- drella, and Clausilia, from the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq. 134

Reeve, Lovett, Esq., F.L.S. Description of a New Species of Bulimus, from the Col- lection of A. L. Gubba, Esq. of Havre . . .. . . 16 Descriptions of sixteen New Species of Bulimus, in the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq., discovered by Mr. W. Lobb in the Andes of Peru . . -~ .- pe ee ee Coe nee Description of a New Species of ‘Gilera oe oh , age

Suaw, A. N., Esq. Letters relating to Collections made at Bombay . . 33, 94

Sowersy, G., Esq., F.L.S. &c. Description of a New Species of the Genus Tomigerus . 14 Description of two newly-discovered Species of Cyclostoma 15

Sowersy, G. B., Jun., Esq., F.L.S. On a New Genus of Pholadida, with notices of several New Species, and of a remarkable specimen of Pholas Calva in Mr. Cuming Collectiony,. 4.2%. ‘<del / Guta

STEVENSON, Mrs. Metter whe oer ceiich cote getter 3) com BEN 1, CTOs


Turner, H. N., Jun., Esq. p page

Notes on the dissection of the Paradoxurus typus and of

Dipus Agyptius . 2m On the Evidences of Affinity afforded me tlie ‘Skull. in the Ungulate Mammalia Weert amet” fal 3 . 147 TweepikE, J. N., Esq., Corr. Memb. Letter relating to Collections made at Hayti . 33 Tyxer, Lieut. R. E. Wettersis daar jee, 4 045-945 106 Notes on the Oi of Soe Tuas: communicated by the Secretary - - 100 VeKEMANS, M. Letter. 33 WarTernouss, G. R., Esq., Pres. E.S. Description of a New Species of Tupaia, discovered in Continental India by W. Elliott, Esq. . . 106 WesTERMAN, M. Letter. 33 Westwoop, J. O., om F.L.S. Monograph of the large African Species of Nocturnal Lepidoptera belonging to or allied to the Genus Saturnia 33 Waite, A., Esq., F.L.S. Descriptions of apparently New Species of Aptera, from New Zealand . i Na a i a 3 Wine, W. Esq., M.E.S. Character of three New Genera and Species of Lepidoptera 104

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January 9, 1849. William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair.

The Secretary reported that since the last Meeting of the Society a beautiful living example of Felis viverrina, Benn., had been pre- sented by Capt. Scanlan, from whose valuable cooperation he had reason to believe that the Menagerie would receive some still more important additions.

A small collection of Insects and Reptiles in spirit had been pre- sented by Dr. E. D. Dickson, Corr. Memb., and Mr. Gagliuffi, British Vice-Consul at Morzook, obtained by them at Bornoo, Morzook, and Tripoli, together with sixteen skins of Birds and five skins of Mam- malia, including a magnificent specimen of the Weddan, Ovis trage- laphus, or Wild Sheep of Barbary.

A collection of Reptiles in spirit, formed in Hayti by J. N. Tweedy, Esq., Corr. Memb., and presented by him, were also exhibited to the Meeting.

The following papers were read :—


The species which form the subject of the present communication were collected by Dr. Dickie, R.N., during his voyage in the Pacific, and have been transferred by him to the British Museum.

Devruinus Evtropta.

Nose of skull rather longer than the length of the brain-cavity, rather dilated on the sides before the notch, very convex and rounded above ; triangle elongate, produced before the tooth-line, concave on

No, CXC.—PRoceEpinGs or THE ZooLOGICAL Soctety.

we Nt

the sides, and strongly keeled in the centre behind ; hinder edgé of blow-hole rather prominent. Intermaxillar wide, convex above, leaving a rather broad open space in front. Palate rather concave in front, convex in the centre behind, the hinder part keeled on each side. Lower jaw thick, blunt, and rather produced beyond the upper in front. Skull rather compressed behind. Teeth cylindrical, conical at the top. The frontal ridge half the distance between the notch and the convexity of the condyles ; condyles large, rather oblique ; foramen magnum rather wider than high.

rather slender,

in. lin.

Length, entire) syeyer ara acts 05 0 Li 0 Gtrbeaivnen ween 2 SS Bik ALO

of teeth-line .......2.0... 6 10

Ob lomer qa). <6 i4 ae. Width:at notehitasceet sees 6 co. 3 6 ALeOnOUipestsrnever mekevevorsia te cries 6 5

at middle of beak ........ 2 10

of middle of intermaxillar.. 1 3

at condyles above........ 3 3

Height of each condyle .......... Lies Skull from notchy son sees oO LO


Skull wide and rather high behind; beak flat, outline wide at the base, rapidly tapering and acute in front, but rather convex on the sides ; sides slightly rounded, the hinder edge near the notch only slightly turned up and rounded ; lower jaw high behind ; triangle extending to near the middle of the beak. Teeth a ther acute at the top ; the lower front one very small. Intermaxillaries broad, hard.

small, cylindrical, curved, ra-

m1 5 = =|

Lensthiventirél, uiuninmentaniionss 14 6 of. beak)! )... Samia to. eA TB Of skrllle ier eae ee oes fares of teeth-line ............ 6 6 of lower jaw ...... Se Seti jal ih: of symphysis of lower jaw.. 1 4 Width-at notch pone eine ane AnD atOrbie cco euetow tke 420 at middle of beak ...... ener tea of intermaxillar in middle . 1 4 of condyles above ........ 2 10

Hab. Pacific.

Very peculiar for the elongation and reflexion of the beak before the notch, and the regular beveling of the sides of the beak.


Skull rather narrow behind ; beak elongate, almost one-fifth longer than the length of the head, rather dilated and concave above behind, with the side edges in front of the notch elongated, keeled, and turned


up ; the middle of the beak flat, with flat shelving sides, the shelving part being broader, and forming a slight keel in front. Intermaxillaries flat, gradually tapering. Triangle to the middle of the beak concave on

the sides, and keeled in the middle behind. Teeth 5 ? very slender,

curved, elongate, conical, tapering, acute; the front very small.

in. lin. Length of skull entire.... 14 6 end of nose injured. OLDER ets ots 8 4 of teeth-line AY of lower jaw .... 12 3 entire. Width-at-orbits) <.as-6. ~/, 20 SeNOLCIL ees eee To at middleofbeak.. 2 2 of intermaxillary i 2 rineaebto (ellie caeenteraa ce Width of condyles ...... 3 0

Hab. West Coast of America.


Mycate (CrenizA) ANTIPODUM.

Chelicera deeper than long, ochrey-brown, the top at the base somewhat hollowed, smooth ; sides smooth, front and tip with several short hairs.

Cephalothorax rotundo-ovate, pale ochrey-brown, the sides in front somewhat grooved. Eyes situated on a slight elevation in front of cephalothorax : the two posterior eyes on each side close to each other.

Legs of a pale brown, but deeper in colour than the cephalothorax.

Abdomen of the same pale brown as the legs, covered with rather long hairs ; the tail nearly as long as the abdomen, the terminal joint elongate, slender, gradually thinner.

Hab. New Zealand.

Myeate (Creniza) HEXOPS.

Chelicera deep black, much deeper than long; above somewhat narrowed ; the top and the greater part of the sides quite smooth ; the front and a narrow line on the sides slightly punctured, each of the punctures supplied with a hair.

Cephalothorax fulvous yellow, oval, somewhat truncated behind and slightly sinuated ; two small silky whitish spots on the fore-part behind the first row of eyes; eyes situated on a slight elevation of cephalothorax, which is deep brown ; a narrow brown line extending down the middle of the back, but not reaching the end.

Legs of a pale brown, sparingly furnished with rather long hairs ; the femoral joints somewhat thickened.

Abdomen black, covered with shortish hairs, which in some lights have a greyish tinge ; the hairs on the under side of the body greyish.

Tail about half the length of abdomen ; the last joint the longest, and gradually more slender from the base.


Hab. New Zealand (Port Nicholson). This species is very remarkable from its possessing only six eyes.


Cephalothorax of a very pale brown, with a faintish line down the middle ; a very distinct white line from the anterior angle of the ce- phalothorax, continuing down the side and carried along each side of the abdomen; the cephalothorax and abdomen on the inner edge of the white line of a deeper brown colour ; the legs and palpi of a pale ochrey-yellow, with many black hairs.

Chelicera covered with greyish hairs.

Hab. New Zealand.

This species, which is described from a male, differs from the Dolo- medes mirificus, Walck. Apt. i. 355, and the Dolomedes sagittiger, as well in markings as in size.


Cephalothorax of a very deep brown ; the extreme edge of the sides, where the legs are inserted, pale; a wide yellowish longitudinal line from the anterior angle of cephalothorax; the outside edges with some brown points; the inner edge with some sinuations ; the band does not reach the end of the cephalothorax ; the middle of the cepha- lothorax with a narrow white line extending from behind the second line of eyes, almost to the end; on each side of it in front a short interrupted line, somewhat rounded in front.

Abdomen deep brown, the sides of a palish hue as far as the middle.

The eyes of the first row very small.

Legs deep brown, with darker coloured hairs.

Hab. New Zealand.

This species seems to be closely related to Dolomedes mirificus, Walckenaer, Aptéres, i. 355.

Artus Darwintl.

Chelicera black, with greenish reflexions, punctured and striated in front, and somewhat impressed at the end; palpi pale brown.

Cephalothorax deep blackish brown, highly polished, considerably paler in the middle of the back ; front part projecting very consider- ably over the chelicera; the front edge behind the first row of eyes with several tufts of short close-set black hairs.

Eyes with the middle pair of first row very large ; the lateral eyes of first row placed somewhat behind the middle pair, and larger than the two hind eyes ; the eyes on the second line very small, nearer the lateral eyes of first row than those of the third.

Legs: First pair very long, deep blackish brown; femoral joint rather longer than the tibial, which is double the length of the genual joint ; the tarsal joint pale at the end; a small spine near the end of the femoral joint on the inside; a longer spine about the middle of the genual joint; three spines placed after each other on the inner edge of tibial joint; second, third and fourth pairs of legs of a pale yellow, smooth, with a few short bristly hairs on the inside and outside.


Abdomen small, at the base projecting slightly over the cephalo- thorax with a broad pale line down the middle ; an impressed dark longitudinal line in the middle.

Hab. New Zealand.

This makes a third species of Attus from New Zealand ; the other two recorded species are Attus abbreviatus, Walck. Aptéres, 1. 477, and Attus Cookii, Walck. i. 478. Most probably the Attus Phri- noides, Walck. i. 479, is from the same country, and doubtless many other species will yet be found.


Cephalothorax and abdomen covered with shining silvery hairs.

Legs fulvous.

Cephalothorax narrowed in front, with a slight groove from the end of the narrowed part on each side extending to the middle of the back ; the posterior part ovate.

Abdomen nearly three times the length of the cephalothorax, much- elongated and attenuated at the end.

Hab. New Zealand.

Eprerra verrucosa, Walckenaer, Apteéres, ti. 135.

Hab. New Zealand.

The specimens in the Museum collection are not im very good con- dition, but seem to agree in nearly every important particular with the species to which I have referred it ; the posterior lateral eye however can scarcely be said to be almost on the same line as the anterior.


Labium nearly as wide as long, truncated at the end.

Cephalothorax gradually convex above, deep ferruginous brown, with two wide longitudinal fulvous bands.

Legs ringed with yellow and brown, the first two legs with the rings obsolete.

Abdomen as long as cephalothorax, but not quite so broad, appa- rently without any impressed points in the middle.

This species appears to differ from the Tegenaria australensis, Walckenaer, Aptéres, ii. p. 12. Lucas, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, in many particulars, especially in the marking of the cephalothorax and the shape of the labrum.


Chelicera as long as the cephalothorax.

Cephalothorax elongated, square in front, slightly wider just behind the middle; a slight groove down the middle.

Eyes situated on two lines, the posterior line the longest ; the two middle eyes of first line nearer each other than the outer eye; the posterior line with the middle eyes rather nearer each other than the side eyes.

Legs elongated, first pair the longest, second pair rather longer than the fourth, the third considerably shorter than the fourth.

Abdomen small, shorter than cephalothorax, smooth.

Hab. New Zealand.


Named after Mr. Joseph Dandridge, an apothecary, who lived in Moorfields more than a hundred years ago, and who has left copious evidence in his MSS. (now preserved in the British Museum) of his love of arachnology.


Chelicera enormously long; first joint not quite so long as the second, and like it rough, with outstanding short spines, the end very slightly thickened ; the end of the second joint gradually thickened, with two claws, one fixed, with a small tooth inside near the base, followed by a deepish notch ; the moveable claw with a largish tooth about the middle, which fits into the notch of fixed claw.

Hab. New Zealand.


Claws and body of a deep brown, the legs pale, the claws with a greenish hue, and furnished with many pale hairs; abdominal seg- ments edged with palish; the femoral joints of legs much-com- pressed.

Hab. New Zealand.

3. NoricE OF THE CAPTURE OF ORTHAGORISCUS MOLA OFF THE Cuesit Bank, Dorsetsoire. By Masor Partey.

In this communication, which was addressed in the form of a letter to Mr. Gray, Major Parlby stated that in the beginning of June 1846 the specimen in question was observed almost daily in the West Bay, sometimes sailing about slowly with half its dorsal fin above the sur- face of the water, sometimes moving with great rapidity, playing about and splashing the water violently, or blowing like a whale or grampus.

As it generally kept off and on between the mackerel and the shore, the fishermen attributed their ill success with the shoals, which never left the deep water, to the presence of this unusual visitant ; and it is remarkable that on the day after its capture they took upwards of 20,000 fish.

The capture happened on the 13th of June, in consequence of the Sunfish swimming directly into the centre of the line of nets. When entangled in the first net it exerted itself so powerfully that it broke through, and was only secured by the yawl or outer net and the co- operation of about forty men, who finally succeeded in landing it on the Chesil Bank : and even here its vigour was so great that it dashed about the pebbles, according to the fishermen’s account, like a shower of grape. It expired in about three hours, after uttering “hideous groans,” like those of a horse dying of the staggers.

On the capture becoming known to Major Parlby and Mr. Fox, surgeon, of Weymouth, they hastened to inspect the fish, and found that the skin was entirely covered with a white mucous slime, upon the removal of which the real colour of the integument was discovered to be of a dull dirty brown colour, and the texture to resemble the most beautiful shagreen.

Major Parlby and Mr. Fox having jointly purchased the fish, pro-


ceeded to have it prepared for the British Museum, to which insti- tution they subsequently presented it. The dimensions are as follow :—

ft. in. Total lencthe dt sess ictal. 3 Height of dorsal fin ........ 2 5 Breadth of it at base........ 1 3 Height of ventral fin ........ Seria Gana ce dia BRAS sina 9:0

January 23, 1849. William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair.

The following papers were read :—

1. Nore on THE SPERMATOZOA OF THE GIRAFFE (Camelopardalis Giraffa). By Grorce GuLuiver, F.R.S.

In the testicle of the Giraffe that died on the 14th of this month in the Society’s menagerie, the semen was tolerably abundant, and there were plenty of spermatozoa in the vas deferens.

The drawings now shown were made from these spermatozoa. They are represented on a scale of z2,;th of an English inch, and magnified about 700 times in diameter.

These spermatozoa resemble in shape, size and chemical characters, those of many other mammals noticed in my former observations in the Proceedings of the Society, July 26, 1842, page 101 ; April 11, 1843; February 24, 1846; and January 22, 1847, page 105.

The age of the Giraffe was about fifteen years.


The older authors have described two species of White-nosed Mon- keys which have been called Hocheurs by the French.

In the British Museum we have specimens of each of these species, and also of two very distinct kinds, which appear either not to have occurred to preceding authors, or to have been confounded by them with the species described by Erxleben.

CERCOPITHECUS MELANOGENYS. The Black-cheeked Monkey. (Mammalia, Pl. IX. fig. 1.)

Dark olive, minutely yellow grisled; face, cheek, forehead, chest and hands black ; a large cordate spot on the nose and a small spot


on each temple white. Throat, under-part of the body and inside of the legs whitish ; the front of the shoulders, outside of the limbs, end of the tail blackish. Ears, the middle of the back, and upper part of the tail, rufous.

In the British Museum collection there is a half-grown specimen of this species which died in a menagerie near London, and was said to have come from Western Africa.

The Black-cheeked Monkey is easily known from Cercopithecus nictitans by its yellow punctulated fur and cordate form of the spot on the nose ; the latter character equally distinguishes it from Cerco- pithecus petaurista, from which it is also separated by the black- ness of its cheeks and the greyness of the outside of the limbs, and the redness of the middle of the back and the tail.

This species was indicated in the Annals of Natural History’ for 1845, but is redescribed and figured here for the purpose of com- parison with the next.

CERCOPITHECUS LUDIO. The Ludio. (Mammalia, Pl. IX. fig. 2.)

Blackish, minutely yellow grisled ; face, temple, crown of the head, shoulders and fore-legs, black ; outer side of the hinder legs and end of tail blackish ; large oblong spot on the nose white ; throat, upper part of the inside of arms, and lower side of the body, whitish ; rump and under side of base of tail dark reddish brown.

Hab. West Africa.

In the British Museum there is a nearly full-grown specimen of this species, which was procured from a menagerie in Liverpool, and was said to have been brought from the west coast of Africa.

This is at once known from two other species which have the fur punctated with yellow, viz. C. petaurista and C. melanogenys, by the large size and erect oblong form of the white spot on the nose, and especially by the absence of any white on the cheek or temples; it ig easily distinguished also by the general black tint of the fur, and especially by the red hairs of the rump.

In the course of last year there was exhibited in the Gardens of the Society a short-tailed American monkey, which was regarded by several eminent zoologists as a species of Cebus which had lost part of its tail ; but there was a peculiarity in the position of the thumb as regarded the fingers, which at once showed that whatever might be the natural length of its tail, it evidently did not belong to the genus Cebus as at present restricted. The examination of the animal after death showed that it was a most distinct genus, and nearly related to, ifnot a variety of, Brachyurus Ouakari of Spix.

I may observe that the genus Brachyurus was established by Spix in his work on American Monkeys for two species, viz. 1. the Simia Chiropotes of Humboldt (the S. Sagulata of Trail), which has been generally referred to the genus Pithecia ; and 2. Brachyurus Ouakari. Spix in the same work restricted the genus Pithecia to the Saki or Long-haired American Monkeys.

The examination and comparison of the skull of the short-tailed

Wolf «lel er lith

Printed by Hullmandel & Walton

monkey and of the allied genera have induced me to think that the American Monkeys with long hairy tails, and with six grinders, may be divided into two very natural subfamilies, characterized by the position and form of the cutting teeth.

The first of these groups I should propose to call Callitrichina: they have small erect cutting teeth, forming a regular series with the canines. This group contains the genera Callithrix and Chrysothriz, with small diurnal eyes, and Nyctipithecus, with large nocturnal eyes.

The second group, which may be called Pitheciana, have the cutting teeth large, converging together, and separated from the canines by a large space, and their under ones more or less shelving. This group contains three genera, viz. :—

1. Pithecia. The fur elongate, dry, harsh ; the tail club-shaped ; the crown like a wig, and the chin slightly bearded ; the lower cutting teeth rather shelving.

This is the genus Pithecia, as restricted by Spix, the Yarkea of Lesson, containing P. monachus, P. leucocephalus, and P. rufiventer of Geoffroy.

Spix (tab. 37. f. 4) figured a skull which appears to belong to a species of this genus, but he does not indicate its name.

2. Brachyurus. The fur silky, short ; tail elongate club-shaped ; the crown like a wig, and the chin largely bearded on each side ;_ the lower cutting teeth are rather shelving ; limb short and straight. Con- taining Cebus satanas of Hoftmanseg, which is the type of Spix’s genus.

Lesson has given the name of Chiropotes to this group, and Cucajao to a second group, established on the Simia melanocephalus of Hum- boldt, which is probably only a badly stuffed specimen of this species.

Spix, in his work on Brazilian Monkeys, figures a skull which ap- pears to belong to this genus, but it is like several others on the same plate, without any name, t. 37. f. 5.

3. Ouakaria. The fur short, silky ; tail short, subcylindrical, the


crown with short hair ; the chin scarcely bearded ; the lower cutting teeth very much shelving ; legs elongate.

This genus forms part of the genus Brachyurus of Spix; and if Spix had not evidently described the teeth, &c. of his first species in his generic character, I should have been induced to have retained for this group the name of Brachyurus, which is more applicable to it than to the one to which it is applied; and indeed M. Isidore Geof- froy appears to have so applied it.

Several species have been described which chiefly differ in the length of the tail; as, 1. Ouakaria Spixii; Brachyurus Ouakari, Spix, Brazil, t. 8, with the tail about one-third the length of the body. 2. Ouakaria calvus; Brachyurus calvus, I. Geoff. Rev. Cuvier. 1847, 137, much paler in colour, but it is very doubtful if the shortness of the tail does not depend on the imperfection of the specimen, and the colour on partial albinism.

We have specimens of B. calvus in the British Museum, presented by M. Bourcier. The skull may be thus described :—

The cutting teeth projecting ; the upper one broad, especially the two middle ones; lower one elongate, narrow, more sloping, and projecting like those of Indri. Canines conical, far away from the cutting teeth, leaving a large vacancy ; flattened in front ; they are flattened before and behind, placed rather obliquely, with a sharp inner edge. The skull is very unlike that of the Cebide ; most allied to that of Pithecia leucocephala,but the cutting teeth in that species are not so proclined.

The converging, slender, shelving, cutting teeth in the lower jaw of this genus, as well as its slender limbs and the shortness of its tail, bear a certain resemblance to the Indri amongst the Lemuride.

The form of the lower jaw also offers a good character for the distinction of the genera.

1. Lower jaw not dilated behind. 2. Lower jaw dilated behind.

Atelina (part). Mycetina. Ateles. Mycetes (much).

Cebina. Lagothrix (moderately). Cebus. Atelina (part).

Pitheciana (part). Brachyteles (moderately). Pithecia. Callitrichina.

Jacchina. Callithrix. Jacchus. Chrysothrix. Midas. Nyctipithecus.

Pitheciana (part). Brachyurus. Ouakaria.




Reddish grey, minutely black and grey punctured; face redder. Under-fur black ; long hair brown, upper half whitish, with a broad, black, subapical band and a bay tip. Tail-end black.

Hab. South Africa; Port Natal.

This species is allied to H. Mutgigella in size, appearance, and the black tip of the tail, but differs from that species in being redder, and in the face being red bay.

It agrees with H. badius, A. Smith, in the colour of the end of the tail ; but that species differs from it in the nearly uniform bay colour and in the length of the hair.

I may here remark, that H. badius offers two very distinct varieties, one being uniform red bay, the hair being of a uniform colour ex- cept a few just over the shoulder-nape which have a black subapical ring. This is the variety figured by Dr. Smith in the South African Zoology.’ The other with most of the hairs of the back and sides having long white tips edged below with a black band, giving the back a grisled appearance.

The foregoing papers were followed by an address from Dr. MEt- vILLE, M.R.C.S., in continuation of his observations commenced on December 12, 1848, concerning the Ipzan VERTEBRA, of which he has furnished the following abstract :—

I employ the term vertebra’ in the extended sense in which it is used by M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire and Prof. Owen, as equivalent to a segment of the endo-skeleton, or to the proximal, more or less ossi- fied, element of that skeleton.

The ideal or typical vertebra is the most complicated possible ver- tebral segment, exclusive of the ichthyic or other peculiarities ; it furnishes the key to the actual vertebrae in the same individual series or in the skeletons of the different vertebrate classes.

An actual vertebra may exist as a unity prior to, or even during chondrosis, but becomes resolved by ossification into a variable num- ber of distinct and independent ultimate elements; which therefore are not repetitions of one and the same elementary ‘body’ or © lamina.’

The number of these ultimate elements varies in the actual ver- tebrze in the same spinal column, and also in those constituting the skeletons of the different vertebrated animals.

The ideal vertebra contains the greatest number of these elements, most of which form arches attached to, or springing from, a central piece or element, and protecting the great nervous and vascular axes and the visceral system.

The upper or neural arch is composed generally of three elements, two lateral, (neural lamine, or neuropomata) ; and an upper or mesial


piece, (neural spine, or neuracantha), which may be subdivided in the median plane.

The inferior or hzemal arch is also constituted when most developed (tail of the lepidosiren) by three elements; the two lateral (heemal laminz or angiopomata) and the azygos inferior one (angiacantha or hzmal spine), which is never subdivided. This arch is most generally present in the caudal region, disappears in the trunk, and reappears in the cervix. In man it only exists at the junction of the occipital and atlantal vertebre, forming the so-called ‘body of the atlas,’ which is regarded by me as the heemal arch of the third cranial vertebra displaced backwards to the intervertebral interspace, as in the caudal region.

The visceral arch, which is also inferior but external to the last, may be regarded as composed of an azygos inferior and two lateral elements. The former is the sternal segment and may be subdivided mesially. Each lateral piece is also resolvable generally into an upper segment (vertebral rib or pleura); and a lower one usually cartila- ginous (sternal rib or hypopleura), which may be subdivided into two or three pieces (three in Plesiosaurus).

The segmentation of the vertebree is partly due to the laws which preside over their genesis, and partly determined by teleological causes.

Several of the elements unite to form the vertebra of the anthro- potomist ; thus the constituents of the neural arch coalesce with the centrum in the dorsal vertebrze ; while in those of the cervical, lum- bar and sacral regions, the abortive pleural complements also are an- chylosed to the elements just mentioned.

Tn fishes, the lower part of the vertebral body is formed by the ex- panded bases of the angiopomata, which meet those of the neuropo- . mata and enclose the proper centrum; but in the higher vertebrata the greater development of the centrum excludes the angiopomata from any share in the body, and displaces them backwards to the in- tervertebral interspace next in succession.

The coexistence of the visceral and hzemal arches is seen in fishes, in the cervical region of many lacertz, and in the tails of the lizards and crocodiles, &e.

Therefore the one is not convertible into the other, as has been supposed by Professor Owen, who regards the sternum and sternal ribs in the thorax as the equivalents of the angiacantha and angiopo- mata, the latter being dislocated from their normal attachment to the centrum and suspended to the extremities of the corresponding pleural elements constituting the sternal ribs, while the former is expanded and sometimes divided mesially to form the sternum.

I am therefore compelled to suggest a new nomenclature of the elements of a typical vertebra more conformable to nature than that employed by Professor Owen, who has used the same term for several distinct objects,